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The most reliable way to tell fossil fuels apart from biofuels lies in their carbon isotope composition: In fossil fuels, all of the carbon-14, which has a 5,730-year half-life, has undergone radioactive decay long ago, while biofuels retain a C analysis—best known as a way to date fossils and artifacts—is accelerator mass spectrometry, which can determine the age of a specimen to within 0.2-0.4%.In cavity ring-down absorption spectrometry, for example, near-infrared light from a continuous-wave laser tuned to the wavelength absorbed by C concentration (Optica 2016, DOI:10.1364/OPTICA.3.000385). To detect C at or below the parts per trillion levels in biofuel samples, the team designed a unit with a stable temperature of -55 ˚C; a very precise, fixed distance between mirrors; and improved laser technology and optics.This is possible because carbon atoms occur in heavy and light forms, or isotopes, and measuring the relative amounts of each can reveal the source of the carbon.Using carbon isotopes in this way is not a new idea, but it requires extremely precise--and expensive--measurements.The company Planetary Emissions Management, which focuses on applications for monitoring greenhouse gas emissions, has signed an agreement with NIST to commercialize the technology.Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a laboratory instrument that can measure how much of the carbon in many carbon-containing materials was derived from fossil fuels.

For those seeking carbon credits for selling or using biofuels, it’s important to know that the fuel actually came from plants that were recently alive, and not from fossil fuels, which are made of plant matter that’s been dead for hundreds of millions of years. The technique works by accelerating ions from a sample to high speeds in order to separate the isotopes by mass and count them.“The payoff will be huge when the instrument becomes available for widespread use at presumably much lower cost than traditional radiocarbon measurement methods.” She says its current level of precision would be most useful for verifying bioproducts, but it’s a long way from being useful for dating archaeological or geological artifacts, or for tracing the sources and fate of fossil fuel emissions in the atmosphere, which would require a precision of 0.2%.The NIST team is now designing a next-generation instrument to target this threshold.Because carbon-14 is mildly radioactive, it has a specific half-life (rate of decay).When an organism dies, it stops absorbing carbon-14, which then begins to decay.

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